Whale Hunting

Whale hunting has been resumed recently with Japanese ships heading forth into Antartic waters. They are claiming, as they always have, that these hunts are for ‘scientific research’, yet as a result of these hunts whale meat is readily available in some Japanese butcher shops.

Many cultures have hunted whales in the past, and the Japanese are not the only culture that still kills whales. For this post find out…Which cultures have hunted whales in the past? Which cultures still hunt whales? Since this is a tradition for many cultures – is it OK to continue to hunt whales? What are your personal opinions? Justify your opinions clearly, and include your links to information that you have used.

Choose to write this as an argument or a discussion.

[kml_flashembed movie="http://youtube.com/v/OlDTAYvIOh0" width="425" height="350" wmode="transparent" /]

Japanese ship hunts whale.

27 thoughts on “Whale Hunting

  1. Argument:

    Recently many cultures are forcing the extinction for whales. The Japanese, Makah Indians are continuing this for either traditions or for the fact that whale meat is highly expensive. I think that animals should deserve the same amount of respect as humans and the governments should take immediate action. The population of whales is dying quickly and the survival for Whales in the future is very rare.

    Firstly it is terrible that the Japanese are sending out boats known as “research team” to disguise the fact that they are killing the whales. Many protestors such as green peace are trying there hardest but the giant boats are too strong. They are approaching other countries and they are give permission to do this.

    Next people are doing traditions and will not destroy any part of their culture. I think that whale hunting should be banned and people should start to realise that they are actually destroying the environment too. In the future the new generations will have to look at paintings to see what a whale’s appearance is.

    The whale is also been sold for plenty of money and the countries who are doing this are doing this are earning a profit for something which they have done wrong. Other countries should ignore the offer of meat so that it will raise the chance of whale hunting to stop.

    I also know that thousands of whales are being killed per year. Some people kill whales and may only take a little part of it and dump the rest. This is a complete waste of an animal’s life.

    Finally I think that Whales should be given plenty of respect and each country should put in their own effort to save the whale.

    By Louisa

  2. Hi guys!

    I think that whaling should stop. It is such a horrible thing to do!

    I agree with Louisa. All the Japanese kill the whales for is money. If they continue the whale will be extinct. If people go to Japan they should not buy the whale meat and so the people will not get as much money which hopefully will make them lose money and stop whaling.

    I also know that the Japanese paint the word research on the sides of their boats. I believe they are not doing research because they wouldn’t need to kill thousands of whales to do it. If they were they would only have to kill about one or two or maybe not any.

    I also agree on Louisa’s point that the other comities other then Japan should step up and help stop the whaling.

    I am not sure but if this is a Japanese tradition then they should still stop whaling. It is already band and you are not allowed to do it. The only way they get away with whaling is saying they are doing research.

    This year they left for the biggest whaling hunt that they have ever had they pan to kill 1000 whales and they will not stop till next year The Japanese government says that they will not stop whaling till the whales are almost extinct!. In a couple of years if this keeps happening some breads of whale COULD BE EXTINCT!

    But there is one hope. Green peace. They are organizations that try to stop the whales getting killed. They go around in little blow up boats and go in front of the whales so they can’t be shot. These people are very brave.

    I hope Green peace stop the whaling!
    Go Green peace!

    From Tessa

  3. I think Japan should not hunt whales because they already have plenty of other food and they would just use the meat which is wasteful for the whole animal. Also it seems they mislead other nations in their promise that it is for scientific reasearch. I have been reading the greenpeace website and it clearly shows they are guilty. Then, I started thinking about when it was OK, and looked up about the Inuit Culture and read about how they do hunt for whales for food, but this seems OK as this is all they have and also they use the whole whale and don’t waste anything.

    Because Inuit live in places where most plants cannot grow, the traditional diet consisted of almost entirely meat. Inuit fished and hunted to get their food. Whales, walruses, seals, fish were staples of their diet. I think this is fine because that is all they have and none of it goes to waste.

  4. Hi

    It’s really bloody in that picture!

    My dad once said Egyptians use Ambergris to keep mummies from rotting – It actually comes from the whales! I have copied this information for you to read.


    Ambergris (Ambra grisea, Ambre gris, ambergrease, or grey amber) is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish color, with the shades being variegated like marble. It possesses a peculiar sweet, earthy odor similar to isopropyl alcohol. Although it is now largely replaced by synthetics, it is still used as a fixative in perfumery.

    Historical and Cross-Cultural Uses

    Ambergris has been mostly known for its use in creating perfume and fragrance much like musk. While perfumes can still be found with Ambergris around the world, American perfumers usually avoid it due to legal ambiguities. The ancient Chinese called the substance “dragon’s spittle fragrance.” Also, ancient Egyptians used burned ambergis as incense. During the Black Death in Europe, the people believed that carrying a ball of ambergris could help prevent them from getting the plague. This was because the fragrance covered the smell of the air which was believed to be the cause of plague.
    This substance has also been used historically as a flavoring for food. As such, the favourite dish of King Charles II of England is said to have been eggs and ambergris. Middle Easterners have also used it as a spice for food and drinks.

    Ambergris has also been used as a form of medical supplement. Middle Easterners have used it to increase strength and virility and to cure heart and brain disease. In some cases, people consider ambergris an an aphrodisiac. Also, during the middle Ages, Europeans used ambergris as a medication for headaches, colds, epilepsy, and other ailments. [6]
    Ambergris was also molded, dried, decorated and worn as jewelry, particularly during the European Renaissance. It was often formed into beads.

    You might want to check out some stories about Ambergris!


    I got the information from:


    one more thing you should check out this now korea wants to kill whales!

  5. Gray here


    Japanese, they are at it again, guess what – it’s whale hunting. The Japanese have already left their home town and are sailing off to Antarctica and on their trip there they are thinking they might get over 1000 whales. These are: 900 Minke whales, 50 Fin whales, and 50 Humpback Whales. Humpback whales are actually on the endangered species list. Now, secondly, on their ship it has big bold letters saying ‘Research’ but really I don’t think they are researching because they don’t need 1000 whales for research. They probably only need 1 and even without killing it. Also probably the people who are on the boat are just doing it for the money because usually they would be a bit poor.

    Like Louisa said, if we don’t save the whales now then we can only see them in books and videos but we will never see them in real life if we allow whaling to continue.

    Hopefully Greenpeace will do something about it.

    By Gray

  6. Hi,

    this is Frankie. I’m doing an argument. I think that what the Japanese are doing is very bad. They are killing 1000 whales for what they say is research. I agree with Gray, why would you want to kill 1000 whales just for research?

    Anyway, here’s what I found out about the different countries that used to kill, or still kill whales: I found out that in recent years Norway had an annual Whale hunting season, and in 2004 Norway went out and killed 670 Minke Whales. Iceland also used to kill Whales and claimed, like Japan, that they were doing it for research. Here is where I found my information:


    I also found out that Stone Age Men used to do it till 2200 b.c. Other countries including Greenland and North America also killed Whales. I found this information from:


  7. Hi this is Gabbie.B and this is my argument about whaling.:(

    This is what I found out from the internet.
    the recent DNA evidence shows that the impact on the commercial whaling may get worse as the time and years go past and because it is all ready bad enough as it is.
    In 2003 Palumbi and his colleagues(people that work with him)used DNA samples to estimate that humpback whales could have numbered 1.5 million prior to the onset of commercial whaling in the 1800s.Whaling is no longer the only threat to whales. The oceans, or rather, human impacts on the oceans, have changed dramatically over the half-century since whales have been protected.

    Kind regards



  8. BJ- I am sad about whale hunting 🙁

    Green peace should try and stop them and press charges of billions, because whales are harmless. If more than 4000 whales are being killed and research doesn’t need thousands of whales, they only need one whale. Green peace should work harder because I was watched YouTube and I looked up whale hunting and the sea was just red – how sad.

    Stop whale hunting!

  9. Hi its Bianca here I agree with Tessa it is a horrible thing to do and it should stop.
    I found out lots of clutches that killed whales in the past
    Norway they killed 300+mike every year.(670 by 1998
    Canada they killed 2,600 beluga every year out of a total population for belugas.
    Russia they killed 200 Beluga every year. Wants to resume full scale commercial whaling.
    Plans to kill at least 200 Grey Whales in a year.
    Alaska kill 1000 Beluga
    Kill bowhead whales every year. Total population less than 2000 animals.
    Killing by Inuit protected a substance hunting
    Greenland kills 1500 Beluga whales every year
    Japan kills 500 minkie whales every year
    Kills pilot whales and baird beaked whales-costal whaling
    Considering killing Byrdes whales
    Denmark kills 3500 pilot whales every year

    Japan is the worst hunting whalers. Tokyo, Japan (AHN) – Australia, New Zealand, the U.K. and the U.S. have criticized Japan for its decision to hunt 1,000 whales for research purposes.

    I do not think it is ok to hunt whales as they are becoming endangered species, they are living animals just like humans so what the difference form killing a whale form a human!

    From Bianca

  10. Hi,

    I am going to do an argument about whaling, because I think it is wrong.

    Whaling has been going on since the prehistoric times when people would kill beached whales; but it wasn’t as much as a danger then to the whale’s species.
    Now whales are close to extinction and will soon die out, if whaling isn’t stopped.

    The main countries that are continuing this threat to our gentle giants are the Japanese and Makah Indians. Whales should have the same respect as people do, and their rights should be noticed. All hunting should be banned to prevent any more extinction from other animals.

    All this “research” business should be stopped by the Japanese as research wouldn’t need the whales to be killed. Even if it did need the whales to be killed, they have had enough dead whales pass through their country already. It is an illegal disguise, and the boats should be not allowed to leave land.

    People who kill whales are really horrible as they kill whales for the meat to get money. The people who do this are selfish and only care about themselves getting money and don’t care how they get it even if it means causing extinction to whales.

    Green peace is doing a really good job but I think if everyone against this problem did something to help we would do better. Green peace makes a difference, but if it’s the whole of a country, or the whole of the pacific, or better yet, the whole world, Japan wouldn’t stand a chance.

    Like Louisa said, some people catch whales and only keep a little part of them then throw them away. They should be called criminals for taking away somethings life, and just throwing it away. That should be called murder.

    Whaling is part of some cultures but cultures can change. Whaling should be stopped as people should realise that they are damaging the environment and the ecosystem. Whaling should be forbidden as it is a terrible thing to do, even if it is part of your culture, the world is changing and so will the laws and cultures, so people should just accept the differences.

    Finally, I think that whaling should be stopped as they should have deeper respect than people because they are the most sacred creatures of the earth.

    Yours sincerely,


  11. Hi it is Ruby,

    I am agreeing with Hannah because the whales have been around for a very long tine and that whale hunting should stop an the whales will go if we don’t do something about it and the main countries that do it should think about what they are doing to them and how they have to suffer in the boat when they are part still alive.

    The “research” boat is going to Antarctica and going to catch about 1000 whales and they are going to come back in April next year and I think that they don’t need that many fish all thought they kill the whale all for food and I don’t think that you need that many fish because they can also pollute the sea by all the chemicals from the boat and tat could also kill some of the fish and other things that live in the sea.

    Every year about 66000 whales get killed and that is a very bad thing to do and soon there will not be any more whales left.

    I think that why cant we leave the whales in there own land because we don’t kill each other for food (but in some places they do and it is very yuck) so why should we kill them if they don’t kill us for food? Because it is very unfair to do that and it should be stoped.

    Ruby .S.


    P.S. this is a site I went on

  12. Hello Room 29 🙂

    I’m doing an argument like everyone else here because this shouldn’t even be discussed, the best is already obvious.

    Whaling needs to be stopped for the sake of stopping extinction, for the sake of the billions of people who care for them and the sake for the victim themselves.

    Whaling is just wrong if you ask me. Killing creatures of any kind for population and wealth is just selfish.

    The Japanese mostly has been whaling for quite a while and I’m sick of their ‘research’ and I’m sure others think so too.

    It has become pretty obvious that this ‘research’ like what Hannah says, is just a illegal disguise that kills creatures and pollutes the ocean with blood.

    Researching whales would not take years and thousands of whales, I would rather not research! A few whales would do the trick.

    Plus, like what Louisa and Hannah both agreed on, sometimes whaling people only use part of the whale that they were looking for in the first place and just throw the rest of the body away as if it’s just another piece of junk you find in your garage.

    They should at least use every part without putting anything to waste, otherwise there basically is no point on killing some truly innocent creatures who deserve a peaceful life without anyone ruining it.

    The whaling people cannot have everything they want sitting on their hand! Especially someone else’s lives! Even the rarest whale could end up trapped in some Japanese people’s hands.

    Whaling needs to be stopped, no buts or maybes. Then the world wouldn’t be so polluted and everyone would be happy again with oceans full of free sea creatures. Nothing would ever be the same without whales swimming across the horizon.

    I hate to even see visions of the future with the elderly telling the young that there have once been creatures called a whale.

    Not only Japanese people, but all the whale hunters, please stop whaling and find a better living that does not include harming some life.

    Let’s just keep our fingers crossed that Green Peace would stop the Japanese whaling hunters and they would promise never to make a single whale bleed not even one drip again!

    And remember, creatures deserve the same amount of life and respect of a human being


  13. I am doing a arguement about whaling, this is what i think.

    I think whaling is bad because it is like killing a human on purpose and getting money for food. This is also bad because it causes extinction of whales.

    This is why I think that Green Peace sould go try and stop the ‘research group’ again so the whales will be left in peace.

  14. Great writing Room 29!

    I have enjoyed the way that you have been building upon eachother’s ideas. This is a very important skill to be able to use, as it not only recognises the work of others but also helps you prove your own points.

    I think that it is interesting to see almost all of you have taken a one sided view on the subject. Although Oliver B has mentioned that the Inuit people hunt whales also, but they live in an environment where food and plant life is scarce. The waste very little of the whale.

    So is it OK for some human cultures to hunt whales?

  15. Whales are becoming extinct because Japanese people are going out on big over one thousand whales all up each year.
    Last Saturday (24th of November 2007) 4 whaling ships set off insight of killing fifty Humpback whales, fifty Fin whales and nine hundred Minke whales, and are set to get back in April next year.

    In the past a lot of countries actually sadly hunted whales and they hunted a lot of types of whales.
    Canada hunted them; Greenland also hunted the poor whales, the Caribbean, Iceland hunted them, Indonesia hunted them, Japan, Norway, Russia, US and us New Zealand.
    This is mostly why whales are becoming extinct because all of these countries used to go out whaling.

    Sadly there are still some countries that go out whaling every few days, unlike New Zealand who stopped whaling forty-three years ago.
    One of the countries that are still whaling are Japan, over the past decade they have killed over eight thousand whales this means that the whales are becoming more extinct each time a whaling ship goes out.
    The Japanese government has asked them to stop and they have replied “we will stop when they are becoming extinct” which would mean that their would only be about one whale left in the whole ocean.

    Even though this is a tradition for many cultures I still don’t think that they should be able to go out whaling every few day or so, I think the population of whales would be better if the whaling ships were only able to go out once a year and could only go out and catch one to three whales per country, since Japan is one of the only countries that go out and catch whales they would only be able to catch one whale per year and if they went over the limit they would get a fine from the Japanese government.
    – Ella-

  16. Olivia
    Did you know the Japanese have been hunting different types of whales since the 8th century?(Wikipedia website)For the Japanese this is a tradition. The Norwegians also have a long tradition for centuries, Norway’s official website) and for several thousand years the Alaskins have hunted whales too( Highnorth library website).
    Even though this is their tradition I still think they should not continue hunting whales as they are becoming rarer and rarer.
    And another reason is that whale meat is high in toxins like mercury and PCB’s and dioxin.
    I also think that saying the hunting of whales for research untrue. If they are doing research they should not take so many and it should not end up in their deaths.
    They also like to catch Minke whales in low fishing seasons. They use it for mostly food and blubber for other materials. Did you know that Alaska skipped whaling which was good but it was only for 13 years. Alaskan Eskimos fished the bowhead whale for several thousand years. And they use it as food plus a spiritual part of their culture.

  17. Hi this is my report…

    I think that the Japanese are being very heartless toward the whales because they say that they are doing this for “scientific research” where you only need 1 whale when they are trying to take about 1’000 times more and also whale meat has been appearing in Japanese butchers, probably because it is very expensive meat.
    The “scientific research” was to collect data on the age and “mode of life” of Antarctic whales. The Japanese are hoping to kill 850-900 Minke increasing 70% from last season, but for the first time in 40 years the whalers harpoons will be killing Humpbacks and Fin whales, species beloved of whale watchers.

    In the past Alaskan Inuit, European whalers and Eskimos have hunted whales and Iceland and Japan are still doing this!


  18. Hi guys

    I think that hunting whales should be stopped
    Some whales may become extinct quicker than others. This is a chart that I found from this website.www.ypte.org.uk/docs/factsheets/env_facts/saving_the_whales.html

    1. Blue whale
    2. Right Whale
    3. Humpback Whale
    4. Grey Whale
    5. Sperm Whale
    6. Fin Whale
    Not Threatened
    7. Minke Whale
    8. Narwhal
    9. Beluga Whale
    Not Known
    10. Orca (killer whale)
    11. Pilot whale

    Until a few hundred years ago there were hundreds of thousands of whales in the ocean. Humans had hunted them but did not take enough to affect whale populations until around the 15th and 16th century when whales were hunted on a large scale. Whales were mainly killed for their blubber which is the thick fatty layer under the whales skin which could be melted down into oils for candles and lamps.

    By the 1930’s whale factories working in the Antarctic waters were taking up to nearly 50,000 whales a year. In 1988, commercial whaling was banned. Some whales take a long time to breed so this is also why they may become extinct.

    Another fact, Japanese people used to see whale meat as a cheap source of protein when there wasn’t much food after the end of world war II.

    I have also found another really interesting website it is called the age education
    this may get updated so I will print a copy.

    this is another website but it is a blog from Greenpeace and some of the people that have posted are actually on the ship which is following the Japanese ships on their journey south. http://weblog.greenpeace.org/whales/?MM_URL=bloglinkfrombanner


  19. hi jock here,
    now the japanese have just sent there fleets of ships to antartica to hunt whales this is truly a problem because there are not many whales left and they are only going to stop if there is only one whale left. there harpoons are probibly already loaded they are thinking to kill about 1000 whales!!!!!!!!!

    did you know that in the stone age 2 boats would have one man with a spear and at the same time they would jump at the whale and try and spear it this is from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/worldnews.html?in_article_id=465987&in_page_id=1811

    today as I said in the first paragragh that the japanese hunt loads of whales every year and the govoment lets them because they say it is for reseach but it is not!!!!!!!!!!!

    I could not find other cultures but I will keep looking

  20. Hi Guys,

    Well I think that the Japanese are being selfish, because they can just catch fish but they have to catch whales.

    The only point of killing whales is to get money; whales are the most paid meat.

    I think whale hunting should be stopped, and I think that it is very brave of the Green Peace to try and stop the Japanese. I really hope that the Green Peace stop Whale hunting once and for all!


  21. Hi Andrew,

    No, I think it is not okay to hunt whales even if it is part of a strong culture. I think this because cultures can be changed as the world is changing to and soon some traditions may not be able to be done, and they may not be as suitable as they used to be.

    People who do have whaling as part of their culture should still follow the same rules, laws and carry the same responsibilities in making our world a better place. People should try and make the world have more animals instead of making it have less to gain more for yourself.

    The people who do whaling are only trying to get money and gain more for themselves, but to get more money they are stealing away something’s life and that should be a crime to take away something’s life and not do a good thing back to what they have destroyed.

    Finally I conclude that whales should not be killed even if it is cultural for some places, as they are getting extinct and people should sacrifice something to prevent the whale’s extinction, as it would be a bad loss to lose such a beautiful creature.

    Yours sincerely,


  22. Hi Room 29

    Well written response Hannah. You are doing a great job at expressing your opinions, and will be able to back up your ideas with other expert opinions/information in future arguments and discussions.

    All of our class members are doing a great job at expressing their ideas. Well done!

    Brittany has a great link to a Greenpeace ship and crew that is on its way to where the Japanese boats are to begin hunting. Make sure you save it as a favourite and visit it regulary.You may even be able to leave a post for the crew members there.

    Be sure to check the videos.

    How can you people help prevent whaling?? You can click the banner link under the whale hunting picture and read Greenpeace’s ideas – are there other ways as well?

  23. I think that for ”research” all you need to do is get two or three submarines and watch the whales’ behaviour. To research is not to kill one thousand whales and eat them. Here is something I copied about whaling.

    Hunting of whales for food, oil, or both. Whaling dates to prehistoric times, when Arctic peoples used stone tools to hunt whales. They used the entire animal, a feat not accomplished by Western commercial whalers until the advent of floating factories in the 20th century. The Basque were the first Europeans to hunt whales commercially; when seaworthy oceangoing vessels began to be made, they took to the open seas (14th – 16th century). They were followed by the Dutch and the Germans in the 17th century and the British and their colonists in the 18th century. In 1712 the first sperm whale was killed; its oil proved more valuable than that of the right whale, which had hitherto been the object of whaling ventures. Whaling expeditions in pursuit of the free-ranging sperm whale could last for four years. The discovery of petroleum (1859), overfishing, the use of vegetable oil, and the substitution of steel for whalebones in corsets led to a steep decline in whaling in the later 19th century, but Norwegian innovations made hunting the hitherto “wrong” whales (rorquals, including the blue whale and the sei whale; so called because they sank when killed) commercially feasible, and the number of whales killed rose from under 2,000 to over 20,000 between 1900 and 1911. The Norwegians and the British dominated whaling into the mid 20th century, when overfishing again made it unprofitable for most nations, though not Japan and the Soviet Union, which became the chief whaling nations. Concern over the near extinction of many species led to the establishment in 1946 of the International Whaling Commission. Commercial whaling was prohibited altogether in 1986, but several nations refused to comply. At the beginning of the 21st century, Norway and Japan continued to hunt hundreds of nonendangered whales annually.

    The people who did whaling are
    Soviet Union

    The people who whale now are

  24. Japan has decided to ‘delist’ the slaughter of humpback whales after protests from Australia, New Zealand and other countries against whaling.

    They will still kill many whales, so we could look at the savior of the humpback in 2 ways – firstly, it is fantastic that the humpback will not be hunted this year, and secondly, does it actually make us think differently of the Japanese hunt? Personally – No.

    Saving the humpback is most likely what we call a ‘token gesture’ or a diversion tactic to make us think better of the hunt.

    The article is listed here.

  25. Hey,

    I am 13 years old and i think this is wrong. Japs have to stop this becuase these whales are a uniqe part of this world and the video and picture up there brought me to tears. These animals are special and no one should be killing them. Whales are an endangered species to this world and the japs should think before they do this because one day there will be no whales, they will al be gone… no longer exsisting? do we want this?

  26. Hello to you all against whaling. It is true that the Japanese are allowed about 900 minkes and 50 fins for what they call ¨Scientific Research¨… But they do this entirely for the profit of whaling. Each whale fetches between 1/4 million to 1 million dollars. So right there is a multi billion dollar industry. The Australian government has allowed the Japanese to hunt through a treaty in Antarctic waters (for specifically science reasons) but Japan obviously takes advantage. Australia requires none of the whale to be wasted so Japan simply markets all the meat and makes billions of dollars… Also, Australia has set certain boundaries for hunting and Japan ignores them. Australia just doesn´t care enough to do anything about it. There are people that do care – the Sea Shepards. It is true that Green Peace attempts to make a difference and stop whaling but what are they really doing? They are down in Antarctic protesting. What do the Japanese care? They just go about their business and don´t listen to protesters. Sea Shepards however, take action against the Nishin Maru and its whaling team. The Japanese whaling team consists of 6 boats – 2 spotter ships for finding whale pods, 3 harpoon vessels (the kill ships for harpooning and killing whales) and then the factory ship for processing all the whale meat and shipping it to Japan for market. The Sea Shepards take in volunteers for crew under Captain Paul Watson and track down the whaling boats. THey then throw non toxic chemicals on the ships to taint all the whale meat (make it un-marketable) and to stink up the whole boat (it smells so bad the Japanese cannot stay on deck and work). This wastes millions of dollars in the Japanese market and discourages the whalers from continuing their work. However, one ship cannot save the whales. More people must take action. The Japanese are smart and have their ways to avoid the Sea Shepards. The Sea Shepards need as much donation money as possible to be able to afford their journeys (they especially need an ice-breaker ship). They run completely off donations and it is enough to keep them going, but the Japanese keep on chugging and so Sea Shepard needs support! Watch Whale Wars to see Sea Shepard in action. Actions speak louder than words! I am an active supporter and donate monthly. I encourage others to do so as well!

  27. Hey,
    People are stupid for doing things like this. I think that it should stop. The human people are smarter than this. We can do other things with our time, instead of killing innocent animals!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *